The Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences is a high-ranking state institution that performs science and technical development policy. The Academy of Sciences coordinates and manages all research Institutions and higher educational establishment activity (University and colleges). Its main objective is a development of fundamental and applied researches in the realm of natural, technical, social and humanitarian sciences in order to generate innovative knowledge and accelerate social and economic improvements in the country.

Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS) was established in 1945. Since then it became a large principle center of fundamental researches. Establishment of Academy was a natural consequence of a centuries-long Azerbaijan scientific thinking progressive development. Material and cultural heritage and many scientific sources indicate that yet in ancient times such science branches as mathematics, astronomy, medicine, philosophy and others were significantly developed in Azerbaijan.

Scientific achievements such as numerous inventions, the high-skilled research staff fostered during its 60 years-long history made a tremendous impact on the formation of Azerbaijan democratic State functioning in accordance with constitutional laws. Azerbaijan Academy activity which is arranged on the basis of modern scientific achievements and considers interests of our Republic has been recognized throughout the world.

Academy activity is ramified into several scientific branches along with both effective research and social-service structures.

Academy of Sciences joins elected members of Academy (active members, corresponding members and foreign members), honorary doctors, as well as research personnel from research institutions, research-service, educational and social-service structures.

A supreme structure of the Academy of Sciences is represented by a General Meeting embracing active members, corresponding members and foreign members). The Presidium Board of the Academy of Sciences is duty bound for Academy responsibilities and functions. The Presidium Board includes the President of the Academy of Sciences, first vice-President, vice-Presidents, Academician-secretaries of the science divisions and the rest of its members. The President of the Academy of Sciences is a head of the Presidium Board.

Research institution, research-service, education and social-service structures, as well as encyclopedia, journal and other kind of scientific publication editorial boards, academic councils, committees, commissions, and societies are effective in the Presidium framework.

Over 10300 personnel works currently for the Academy of Sciences including about 5500 research workers, some 500 doctors, and about 2000 candidates active at various science branches. There are 60 active members and 107 corresponding members. They work for the Academy and for other research institutions.

Azerbaijan National Academy structure consists of six science divisions: Mathematics/Physics and Technical Sciences, Chemistry division, the Earth related Sciences, Biology Sciences, Humanitarian and Social Sciences, as well as regional Nakhchivan Division. Each science division includes research and research-service institutions, purpose-oriented councils, commissions, committees, scientific Societies and relevant science editorial boards. Nakhchivan Regional Division manages a wide range of researches.

Science divisions of Academy identify appropriate development trend for relevant science branches and coordinate their endeavors, consider current state of the science development in Republic and worldwide, predicts the way ahead, manages activity of purpose-oriented councils, commissions, committees, scientific societies, enhances collaboration between research institutes, higher educational establishments and between scientists, provide links between domestic and foreign scientists, and prepare proposals how to tackle social-economic problems.

Academy of Sciences embraces 66 establishments including 48 research institutes, 9 design and technology offices, 2 regional research centers, 4 museums, 2 observatories, 3 pilot-experimental plants and a research center "Azerbaijan National Encyclopedia".

The core structure of Academy consists of institutes conducting fundamental and applied researches. Keeping in mind the main development trend, research institutes develop and perform research programs and strive to extend its international links, approve scientific treatises, and do their publications.

Regional research centers explore natural resources, historical and cultural heritage, as well as various social and economic problems.

Over half of Academy of Sciences activity period coincides with the nationwide leader Heydar Aliyev's tenure. Last century during 70-s Academy of Sciences was worldwide recognized thanks to his continuous care. Our scientists became honorable and recognized throughout considerably vast and diverse geographic areas.

Since our independence Heydar Aliyev undertook necessary measures to protect Academy's material and technical facilities, to improve social and working conditions of the personnel working in the cradle of science to inspire progress of varies science branches are also associated with Heydar Aliyev's name.

" Science is an important potential source for social, economic and cultural development" - said our leader, yet in 1970-1870-s, who wanted Azerbaijan to become a modern and independent state and therefore elaborated science development strategy and began its successful implementation.

Governmental concern about science development should be considered as a part of policy intended to strengthen our statehood system and encourage progress of the national cultural heritage. Nowadays, when globalization process is gaining momentum throughout the world, and advanced technology rapid implementation is under way, Independent Azerbaijan development is basically dependent on the science development level.

Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences had a significant implication for the national-cultural development and the science progress.

With inherent long-term science history, several worldwide known scientific trends and school thoughts have been evolving systematically during the last half of century. Actually, Academy exemplifies successful development trend of the science. Academy has worked out its own development trend and inherent cultural way of doing. Such kind of national heritage was highly appreciated by Azerbaijan people.

Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences accomplishments achieved last century during 70-80-s were recognized by the world scientific community. Owing to economic and cultural improvement, and high-skilled personnel training nationwide leader Heydar Aliyev offered the science temple to be decorated with the Order of "Friendship of peoples" in 1975.

Academy accomplishments and its International outlook have always been highly appreciated. The Azerbaijan scientists' achievements had been highly appreciated in foreign countries several times. Significant progress achieved in recent economy conditions is owing to accomplishments in the realm of physics, mathematics, mechanics, cybernetics, information science, power engineering and other technical sciences.

It should be noted that there were only few doctors and candidates in these branches of sciences prior to 1960. However, starting from 70-s, owing to nationwide leader's initiative and concern to foster skilled specialists, hundreds of students got assignments to various of the former USSR Institutes. Dozens of postgraduate and doctoral students were trained there to get their candidates and doctoral degrees under the supervision of distinguished scientists working for the leading research centers of the former USSR. As a result of such endeavors high-skilled specialists were fostered for our Republic to meet modern standards. Yet in early 80-s, petroleum machine manufacturing, physics, mathematics, information science, cybernetics centers were yielding their world-rank products.

Last century during 70-s math science had a tremendous stride recognized worldwide as a particular school of thoughts. Dozens of young researchers who defended their postgraduate and doctoral theses in mathematics at various advanced math schools of thoughts had significantly enhanced potential of Academy's math science personnel. Last century during 80-s honorable Heydar Aliyev provided the main impetus for fundamental researches carried out in Institutes of Physics in the realms of physics of solids, semiconductors, elementary particles, electrophysics and power engineering. During his social and political career Heydar Aliyev highly appreciated and gave considerable attention to such branches of sciences as history, literature, culture and generally to all humanitarian sciences and validated their role in the national heritage development. It was a wise policy intended to re-evaluate national classic heritage in order to shape national cultural values. Celebration events devoted to the famous poets' and writers' jubilees became one of the major features of the cultural life in Azerbaijan. As a result of Heydar Aliyev's concern, jubilee celebrations were carried out to commemorate Nasimi, Nizami, Fizuli, N.Narimanov, J.Jabbarly, S. Vurghun, S. Rustam, Ashig Alascar and other writers, and were accompanied with a number of issued books and relevant albums.

Honorable Heydar Aliyev paid a particular attention to the matter of famous writers' immortalization. So, museum-houses of such writers as S. Vurghun, M. Ordubadi and J. Jabbarly were established by Heydar Aliyev's suggestion. Approximately the same time grand monuments were erected for Nasimi, S. Vurghun, and J.Jabbarly in Baku. Magnificent mausoleums were built up for M.P.Vagif and Nizami in Shusha and Ganja, respectively. H.Javid's remains were exhumed and returned back to his motherland Nakhchivan where museum-house and mausoleum were established for his commemoration in 1981. All these events represent great respect shown to Azerbaijan classic heritage.

Outstanding political figure - Heydar Alieyv quite clearly comprehended the effect of science on social community development and made Governmental authorities to provide all possible sustainable opportunities for science development after his second return.

Current Academy accomplishments are also associated with just Heydar Aliyev endeavors. On January 31, 1997, President of the Azerbaijan Republic Heydar Aliyev invited Academy Presidium Board and a group of the leading scientists to emphasize a need to reform the Academy structure. He also noted that Academy of Sciences should rearrange its principle goals in accordance with Azerbaijan economy development strategy. President of Azerbaijan Republic appreciated Academy accomplishments and said, "The research staff of Academy led by Executive Board elaborated tremendous developments, conducted fundamental investigations along with essential accomplishments, issued research treatises and a number of proceedings, and I would say quite confidently, contributed significantly into the world science". That was actually a high mark given to Academy fundamental investigations.

That meeting had a tremendous impact on Azerbaijan Academy evolution history, as well as improved scientists credit, and strengthen their position in a society, and therefore was considered as a pivotal point for relevant changes and reforms.

Starting from that time and keeping in mind advises given by the nationwide leader, Academy Presidium Board passed necessary resolutions in order to carry out required reforms, to improve its management and structural systems, precisely identify the science development trend, as well as enhance personnel responsibility and performance efficiency of the research and science-service institutions. Legal regulations that streamline Academy activity were significantly amended. The chapter of the Academy of Sciences underwent significant revision.

In order to improve the science development and to maintain available research and technical potential and foster high-skilled research and education staff, as well as to enhance social care about research personnel and their implication in the society, a series of essential resolutions were passed during the last decade.

Heydar Aliyev's decree issued on May 15, 2001 was a significant event for the Academy staff. Renaming Academy of Sciences into the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan Republic had underscored the role of Academy's fundamental accomplishments in the national cultural heritage development, improved its credit given by the society for their achievements and once again testifies that science considerably contribute into our Republic development.

The following decree issued by Heydar Aliyev the President of Azerbaijan Republic on January 4, 2003 Academy was granted a State status in order to implement its scientific and technical strategy of our independent country. That action is considered to be a pivotal point for Academy evolution history. Another President's decree issued on January 4, 2003 approved the Regulations of Academy of Sciences and confirmed its President appointment.

Heydar Aliyev's approval of the Chapter of the Academy of Sciences provide a wide range of juridical based power for Academy's activity, and charged it with critical responsibilities.

Decrees concerning Academy issued by our genius leader will provide an opportunity to handle a series of challenges facing Academy.

The science development trend and research programs had undergone a strict revision whereas its structural outline was significantly improved during the last period. Some inefficient research programs, along with several institutions, science divisions and laboratories were abolished, whereas others were joint and a few new ones were established. First time, in July 2001 since Azerbaijan gained its Independence Academy of Sciences held very important voting. Some time prior to the voting President of Azerbaijan issued a decree to set a 200 quata for Academy members. 27 academicians and 86 members were elected out of 500 pretenders from various science branches. As a result of voting proportion of young and gifted scientists was significantly increased among Academy members. Academy Presidium Board was also reelected.

Nakhchivan Division of Academy of Sciences was established in compliance with the President Heydar Aliyev's decree dated August 7, 2002. This founded Division had a tremendous implication for the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and provided an opportunity to arrange favorable conditions in a sense to improve the efficiency of research programs and enhance responsibility of available research personnel, as well as to study its history, archeological data and natural resources. Nakhchivan Academy Division includes such institutions as History, Ethnography and Archeology, Art, Language and Literature, Natural Resources, Bioresources, Foundation of Manuscripts and Batabat Astrophysics observatory.

In order to improve social conditions of the Academy personnel and enhance the efficiency of their research programs, the nationwide leader issued a series of important decrees. In 1997 the salary of Academy personnel increased by 50%, whereas in 2002 their salary was increased 2 folds. Scientific rank-remuneration of the active and corresponding members of Academy was increased by 10 folds in 1997 and again 3 folds in 2002.

In compliance with a decree dated March 30, 2001 "Concerning salary increment of the Academy Presidium Board staff" their salary along with that of Academy Central management staff were equalized with that of Azerbaijan Republic Executive Authority staff.

All that exemplifies excellent evidence of Governmental concern and care about research personnel.

His Excellency Ilham Aliyev, President of Azerbaijan Republic subsequently adheres a strategy set by nationwide leader Heydar Aliyev has currently issued several decrees very crucial for our science, educational and cultural development.

On February 14, 2005 Ilham Aliyev, President of Azerbaijan Republic has issued a decree "Concerning 60-th anniversary of Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences" where His Excellency has highly appreciated the role of Academy in the country's economic, social and cultural development, and its endeavor to foster research personnel, as well as owing to these achievements was granted assigned governmental Status for its anniversary and gave relevant instructions to perform necessary preparations.

In this context, President also issued a series of decrees as "Concerning decoration of the Academy members with the "Glory Order" dated February 14, 2004, "Concerning remuneration increment due to the scientific degrees", dated April 16, 2004, and "Concerning grant increment for postgraduate, higher educational, collage, professional school, and lyceum students", dated April 19, 2004. All that decrees demonstrate how Azerbaijan scientists' contribution had been evaluated and what kind of care for young researchers and students have been given.

Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences personnel comprehended President Ilham Aliyev's decrees "Concerning Azerbaijan National Encyclopedia publication" and "Concerning implication of Azerbaijan mass publications issued in the latin graphics" that encouraged them to get all available potential for the projects to come true.

Undoubtedly that issued edicts about "Knowledge day" established on September 15 and workflow streamlining at the educational institutions, along with the decree intended to provide general education schools with information and communication systems will contribute to issues associated with science development and education improvement in our country.

Both edicts "Concerning measures related to the social-economic development acceleration" dated November 26, 2003 and "Governmental program concerning alternative and renewable energy sources implementation in Azerbaijan" dated October 21, 2004, Academy of Sciences considers as the major milestones in its activity. Academic Institutes and Regional Centers are involved in the process of the governmental program development and their implementation in order to resolve regional social and economic problems that are currently under way.

Both scientifically substantiated internal and foreign policy carried out in Azerbaijan taking into account current circumstances have resulted in the significant strides achieved in the realm of science likewise in other areas.

In order to secure independent development of our country and achieve sustainable social and political environment, to strengthen its democracy system, and facilitate economic improvement, our scientists keeping in mind these challenges have focused all available potential to tackle them as soon as possible. Certain advantages derived from carried out researches have been identified considering national interests as a primary factor.

Science is thought to be a potential source enabling us to properly arrange independent statehood, as well as improve social-economic and cultural development. With objective to protect our sovereign state, as well as to strengthen social and political stability, and improve democratic establishments and economic development our scientists invoke all their knowledge to overcome these challenges. Azerbaijan scientists remained devoted to the President of Azerbaijan Republic and were helpful to him during very hard times.

Despite fundamental science attributes are international, primary national interests were always kept in mind when identifying advantages of the research projects. Recent achievements gained by our scientists have contributed significantly to the world science.

Academy scientists involved in the realm of physics have discovered a new class of complex semiconductors, and developed their production technology and implemented it in practice. The new scientific schools of thoughts founded in the realm of mathematics and mechanics in Azerbaijan were recognized and honored worldwide. Scientists involved in cybernetics have designed the advanced and urgent solution to tackle the problems of petroleum chemistry and hydrocarbon processing. Important research projects have been elaborated in the realm of new information technologies customizing

Azerbaijan scientists' achievements in the realm of chemistry were greatly appreciated both in our country and many countries worldwide.. As a result of those achievements it became possible to produce high quality motor fuels, different sorts of gasoline, specific liquids, motor and lubricating oils.

Ethyl alcohol technology development intended to produce synthetic rubber was also one of the critical pages in the petroleum chemistry evolution history.

Azerbaijan geoscientists involved in the projects associated with hydrocarbon field geology and geophysics, hydrocarbon deposit development, as well as studies related to the structural architecture of the Earth crust at different tectonic zones have also contributed significantly in the world science.

Academy biologists involved in various projects related to molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, gene biotechnology, bio-information science, bio-generated energy enabled them to get insight into survival mechanisms of plants against extremely harsh environmental conditions and agricultural plants productivity increment. In order to understand how to protect diversity of flora, fauna, soil cover and micro-organism species bioscientists carry out integrated investigations.

Comprehensive investigations have been focused on Azerbaijan centuries-long history, linguistics and literature, social philosophy, and wealth of scientific and art heritage resulted in a long run in many valuable scientific treatises.