Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences was established in 1945. During this period, the Academy of Sciences has become a huge organization, a major center of fundamental research. The establishment of the Academy has been a natural result of the formation of scientific thinking in Azerbaijan for centuries. Material cultural monuments and many scientific sources show that mathematics, astronomy, medicine, philosophy, and other sciences were still highly developed in ancient Azerbaijan.

The scientific results obtained at the Academy for 60 years, numerous inventions, trained highly qualified personnel have played a decisive role in the formation of the independent Republic of Azerbaijan as a democratic and legal state.

At present, ANAS has 6 departments: physical-mathematical and technical sciences (Institute of Physics, Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Institute of Control Systems, Institute of Radiation Problems, Institute of Information Technology, Shamakhi Astrophysics Observatory named after Nasraddin Tusi, Institute of Biophysics); chemical sciences (Institute of Petrochemical Processes named after Academician Yusif Mammadaliyev, Institute of Catalysis and Inorganic Chemistry named after Academician Murtuza Nagiyev, Institute of Chemistry of Additives named after Academician Ali Guliyev, Institute of Polymer Materials); Earth Sciences (Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Institute of Geography named after Academician Hasan Aliyev, Institute of Oil and Gas, Republican Seismological Service Center); biological and medical sciences (Institute of Botany, Institute of Zoology, Institute of Physiology named after Academician Abdulla Garayev, Institute of Microbiology, Central Botanical Garden, Institute of Dendrology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Institute of Genetic Resources); Humanities (Institute of Literature named after Nizami Ganjavi, Institute of Linguistics named after Nasimi, Institute of Architecture and Art, Institute of Manuscripts named after Mohammad Fuzuli, Folklore Institute, National Museum of Azerbaijan Literature named after Nizami Ganjavi, Huseyn Javid's House Museum), Department of Social Sciences (named after Abbasgulu Aga Bakikhanov Institute of History, Institute of Archeology and Ethnography, Institute of Economics, Institute of Philosophy, Institute of Law and Human Rights, National Museum of History of Azerbaijan, Institute of History of Science, Institute of Caucasus Studies, Institute of Oriental Studies named after Academician Ziya Bunyadov). There are 2 regional departments and 2 regional scientific centers at ANAS: Nakhchivan Scientific Department (Institute of History, Ethnography and Archeology, Institute of Art, Language and Literature, Institute of Natural Resources, Institute of Bioresources, Manuscripts Fund, Batabat Astrophysics Observatory), Ganja Department ( Nizami Ganjavi Center, Institute of Humanitarian Research, Institute of Ethnography, Institute of Bioresources, Institute of Ecology and Natural Resources, Institute of Agrarian Problems, Botanical Garden); Sheki Regional Scientific Center and Lankaran Regional Scientific Center.

In addition, a number of institutions operate under the Presidium of ANAS: "Azerbaijan National Encyclopedia" Scientific Center, Central Scientific Library, Museum of Natural History, "Cybernetics" Scientific Production Association, "Elm" Publishing House, Republican Scientific Research Coordination Council, Free Trade Union, Veterans Council, Council of Young Scientists and Specialists, House of Scientists, "Nafta" Scientific Production Association, "Ashqar" Scientific Production Association, Interdisciplinary Analytical Center and "High Technology Park of ANAS" Limited Liability Company.

By the order of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev dated January 12, 2004, the Encyclopedia of Azerbaijan was subordinated to ANAS and according to another order dated May 5, 2004, the “Azerbaijan National Encyclopedia” Scientific Center was established.

At present, the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences employs about 10,000 employees, including 4,939 researchers, 664 doctors of sciences, and 2,026 doctors of philosophy. The Academy has 73 full members and 114 corresponding members.