HEYDAR ALIYEV AT THE HEAD OF THE STATE:
THE FIRST PERIOD TURNING POINT TOWARDS THE INDEPENDENCE AND BEGINNING OF NATIONAL AWAKENING
Despite the important successes Azerbaijan achieved due to the creative will of the people, in the 1960s one could notice a certain regression in many spheres of the economy, both in industry and agriculture, caused by the subjective and the objective facts. The Republic was gradually weakening and this found its negative reflection in the social life of the people. Azerbaijan remained behind the Soviet Union for the general exponent of the production, especially that of industrial production, for the amount of the national income and the rate of labour efficiency augmentation. The process was constantly on. The condition of agriculture was unbearable. There was nearly no application of scientific-technical achievements.
The 60s of the 20th century might be evaluated as the period of deep and long
crisis for the economy of Azerbaijan. We needed to think over the alternative,
to find out new conceptual methods of approach for the development of the
economy, to carry out serious structural reforms in agriculture, and apply
new methods for industrial and economic stimulation.
In 1969 Heydar Aliyev came to the head of Azerbaijan and gave start to the first period of his leadership. To make Azerbaijan one of the progressive states of the Soviet Union, in the complicated period of the totalitarian regime, the great fanatic of his people Heydar Aliyev started a program of extended reforms in all the spheres of life.
More than 50 years the 20th century Azerbaijan witnessed the personality and the activity of Heydar Aliyev. HEYDAR ALIYEV IS THE FOUNDER OF A NEW AZERBAIJAN. His building activity has started earlier than in 1969. In the 40s of the 20th century, Heydar Aliyev started to work at remedial organs of Azerbaijan and despite the obstacles created on his way, he raised to the position of the chair of Azerbaijan State Committee on Security-the main support of USSR in Azerbaijan. Under his intensive and efficient activity at that period, the State Committee on Security made important steps to clean our country of the enemies and collected the deserved people for the activity at the Security Services.
The staff of the State Committee on Security (SCS), full with the Armenians and the representatives of other nations since the 20s-30s of the 20th century, the author of the bloody repressions against our people was fully replaced with the Azerbaijanis by Heydar Aliyev. Each Azerbaijani should realize and never forget that after March genocide of 1918 dashnaks participated in the Soviet occupation of 1920 in. Next time dashnaks murdered our people under the mask of the Soviet builders. They took important chief positions at the State Committee on Security and (SCS) and the National Commissariat on the Internal Affairs (NCIA). Under the false name of "crimes" Armenian 'chekists' carried out mass repressions against our people in 20s -30s of the 20th century, murdered the prominent representatives of Azerbaijan such as Javid, Mushfig and others. So involving of patriotic and honourable Azerbaijanis into SCS was not an ordinary fact; this policy prevented our people from the following pursuits.
I am the witness of the national fanaticism of Heydar Aliyev in the implementation of such an important act.
…At early 60-s I was the student of the faculty of the History at Baku University. I was the secretary of the Komsomol organization of the faculty. After Nikita Khrushov came to power, he started the company against China. A talented second-year student protested it with leaflets. SCS started to study the affair on him. We all worried. I was ordered to hold close meeting of comsomols of our faculty. At the assembly hall of the former building of the University (today- the building of the Institute of the Economy), we held the meeting of comsomols. Heydar Aliyev(he didn't occupy the high position at that time) participated at the meeting. He took the chair and made a speech full of advice to the youth. Then followed disputes and 'comsomol' critics. Everything was smooth at the beginning of the meeting. All the speakers determined beforehand, criticized the student and then asked for his 'forgiveness'. I was about to close the meeting that our rector, under the influence of the previous speeches decided to hear the opinion of other students. I was obliged to do obey. Hands raised up one by one and the meeting excited. The students began to criticize the existing regime. When we were in desperate Heydar Aliyev again took a chair and advised the comsomols to assume the reeducation of their mate. He got us out of a tight spot. We all admired his courage!
The late 60-s of the 20th century gave start to a new period of Heydar Aliyev's activity. In 1969 when deep decay surrounded all the spheres of life in Azerbaijan SSR, Heydar Aliyev was chosen the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan and shouldered the control of the state. The history of Soviet Azerbaijan witnessed the period of turn. Further historical development proved, that laid the foundation of today's independent Azerbaijan at that time.
Heydar Aliyev had full knowledge about all peculiarities of the Soviet Regime. Having wide management experience, he decided to take decisive steps. He ordered to prepare complex development programs for long-term, dynamic and thorough development of the state and immediately started their implementation. Heydar Aliyev gained people support from the very beginning. Azerbaijan witnessed the PERIOD of HEYDAR ALIYEV. Heydar Aliyev started the policy of the progress using rich economic potentiality and extended facilities of the Soviet Union.
Great politician raised the questions on different spheres of the economy (as well as the agriculture) and culture so important for the development of his people, firstly at the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of The Communist Party of the Soviet Union, at the plenums of the Central Committee and the sessions of the Communist Party. Then he achieved their confirmation and mobilized our people to the execution of those decisions. His struggle for Azerbaijan development continued day and night. He wanted Azerbaijan to freely provide itself, be capable for independent life, highly developed in scientific and technical sphere country (or as with that time term 'administrative-economic unit'). In a word, Heydar Aliyev stood at the head of the way leading to Independence of the country.
During his leadership, Heydar Aliyev managed that the Soviet government adopted 5 main decrees for the benefit of thorough development of Azerbaijan and supplied their implementation. Azerbaijan focused all its power at its own development. The period between 1970 and 1985 turned to be the brightest period of the reformation in the history of Soviet Azerbaijan. One could witness progress in all the spheres of the economy and agriculture. The economy of the Republic exercised important structural changes, such as the creation of new and progressive spheres, development of in the sphere of scientific research. The application of scientific-technical achievements and modern technologies to the process of production took Azerbaijan to the first positions in the USSR. The quality of production highly rose.
Prescient policy and professional management of took Azerbaijan to the most advantageous agricultural state in the Soviet Union. Azerbaijan also distinguished for cotton-growing and vine-growing. The social-economic position of the farmers considerably improved. The province was enlivened with constructive and renovation works and cultural reformation.
The period between 1970 and 1985 are the brightest moments in the history
of Azerbaijan reformation. The 9th, the 10th and the 11th 5-year period
occupy a particular position in the History of Azerbaijan for the amount of
changes, the character of carried out deep structural reforms in economical
and social spheres, improvement of financial conditions of the people
Hundreds of plants, factories and other production swatch established over the whole republic during 1970-1985. 213 great plant facilities started to function. In many important industrial spheres, Azerbaijan won the first places in the Soviet Union. 350 kinds of products made in Azerbaijan were exported to 65 foreign countries. The amount of industrial production for these years was equal to the previous 50 years period. During those 50 years, Azerbaijan was a great construction square. Baku and the regions of the republic were completely changed.
Hundreds of dwelling houses, hotels, social apartments, schools, culture houses beautifying Baku and Azerbaijan regions today, factories, plants, huge industrial objects, great production complexes, water reservoirs, pools, Kur water pipeline, green zones, roads, Baki-Balaken railway relating the capital and north-west of the country, railway in Khankendi and other works carried out to relate Nagorny Karabakh with Baku and to re-establish there Azerbaijan traditions. All the abovementioned is the result of Heydar Aliyev's constant activity and fanaticism to his Motherland.
One of the achievements of Azerbaijan from 1970 until 1985 was establishing of trained personnel, as well as specialists on rare professions for future support of the people. Coinciding quick and multilateral development of the economy during that period it was necessary to extend the system of high and professional education. 3500 of younger Azerbaijanis were sent to 170 advanced schools of the USSR. Each year about 800 students were sent abroad Azerbaijan. military education was under particular attention. The absence of Azerbaijani representatives at the center of space flight training of the USSR made Heydar Aliyev to take under personal control training of youth at high schools for pilots.
…I remember it well. It was the late 70s. I was invited to the usual conference held at the Central Committee concerning entrance exams to high schools. After the minister of education and rectors of several high-schools, Heydar Aliyev invited to word the chief of the General Forces Commanders School. His question was about the quantity of local (Azerbaijani) students. The answer of the chief dissatisfied Heydar Aliyev-the quantity of Azerbaijanis interested in military education was very few. Heydar Aliyev criticized the chief of the General Forces Commanders School and gave him concrete orders. The next year I participated at the same conference again. The chief of the General Forces Commanders School was again invited to the word. Heydar Aliyev was interested in the percents of representation of the native people. Despite of the fact that there were some progress in the affair, the president still remained dissatisfied. I still remember the words of the great politician:" We should send native people to pilot schools. We should train pilots. Another day I interested in the composition of the team of cosmonauts. The fact dissatisfied me that there was no Azerbaijani in the staff. They said that only the graduates from the pilot school might be included in the team. After some investigation, it was revealed that no Azerbaijanis was represented at pilot schools of the USSR. What are you busy with ?!"
Those matters having strategic importance were personally controlled by Heydar Aliyev. THE GREAT AZERBAIJANI passed ahead the time and founded professionals for 21st century Azerbaijan.
In the result of programs of complex development carried out by Heydar Aliyev at early 70s-80s of the 20th century turned into progressing industrial, agricultural and cultural republic in great USSR, which was regressing. Heydar Aliyev achieved all this by his wise policy.
The best result of Azerbaijan in the Soviet period is that established at
that time economic, scientific-technical and cultural potential formed
the stable base for complete independence of our republic.
Heydar Aliyev foresaw our independence at that time and got his people ready for these days. The great genius started to form today's Azerbaijan since then.
At the period of domination of the Communist regime, the prominent public official Heydar Aliyev started the struggle against the injustice towards his people. Nobody but him was in power to do it. Troubles that his people suffered in the regime of the Kremlin he met with prescient and courageous measures carried out particular importance for the future of Azerbaijan. He founded the monuments of great Azerbaijanis in all the parts of his motherland, returned Javid, the victim of the repression, to his motherland many years after his death. In honour of thousands of Azerbaijanis died in Kerch and Crimea he raised the monument near Sapun Gora…
At the years of Heydar Aliyev's leadership in Azerbaijan, a large group of prominent artists of Azerbaijan-the poets, the writers, the composers for the first time was awarded the honoured name of the Hero of the Socialist Labor.
He also put the monument for Nariman Narimanov- the great fanatic of his people put in the forefront in Moscow and later killed under the strange circumstances, stamped as a 'nationalist', to mention the name of which had been prohibited. Later he achieved to put N. Narimanov's monument in Ulyanovsk and proved that nothing, even the soviet regime could destroy the feeling of the fanaticism in him.
During the leadership of Heydar Aliyev (late 60-s early 70-s of the 20th century) the past of Azerbaijan also turned to an interesting point in the history of our development; one could notice moral-national awakening in people life. This process has found its reflection in Azerbaijan Encyclopedia published under the editorship of the great intellectual Rasul Rza. The chief editorship of the encyclopedia and most of the scientists gathered around it were distinguished by their courageous speech. The decisive role of Turkic ethnic groups in the formation of our people, particular role and objective evaluation of the figures of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, the occupation of April 1920 and other matters were rose by the Encyclopaedists. With the help of Rasul Rza, I managed to issue the maps on Azerbaijan history at map factory in Kyiv. The chief editor staff of the Encyclopedia published atlas-'the maps of Azerbaijan SSR'(in Azerbaijani and Russian) under the editorship of Rasul Rza in 1972. Abovementioned historical maps have been included in the atlas. But native traitors informed Moscow about it and drew the attention of Armenian historians. They brought L.S.Shaumyan to Baku. L.S.Shaumyan was the son of S. Shaumyan--famous author of for March 1918 genocide against our people to stamp us as 'nationalist', 'bourgeois ideologists' and 'the enemies of the Soviet power and Russia'. L.S.Shaumyan, the first deputy of the editor in chief and one of the heads of the Soviet ideology, tried to use the situation against Azerbaijan people. Thanks to wisdom and courage of Heydar Aliyev he failed, all the Encyclopaedists and the majority of the intellectuals were saved from pursuits of SCS and the punishment of the party.
The historical importance of all the reformation works carried out in the first period of Heydar Aliyev's leadership in Azerbaijan is that they awoke the feelings of national pride, national consciousness, independence and freedom in our people. All that meant a new step in the movement of Azerbaijan people for independence in the 70s of the 20th century. There is no need to prove the close logic relation between today and previous activity. Facts do it better!
One of those facts is that in the period of destruction of the world socialist system and the great Soviet empire Azerbaijan SSR was the second to survive in the union of USSR thanks to its high level of the development and multilateral economy.
Today we can say that state sovereignty and economic independence
of Azerbaijan, systematically progressed foreign economic
relations, deep integration to the world economy base on the
the potentiality of the national industry founded in 1970-1985.
The next merit of Heydar Aliyev before his people is that North Azerbaijan has already been ready as an independent state when 'the constitutional Act of State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan' was adopted in October 18th 1991.