The objective of archaeology is to study ancient peoples' appearance, their development and formation. Archaeology attempts to familiarize modern humans with the ancient past of humankind through the material finds of cultural remnants.
Comprehensive evidence of a material culture that is related to the time of the first inhabitants was found during archaeological excavations in the territory of Azerbaijan. As a result, Azerbaijan was included in the list of countries which hosted the first sites of ancient people. The most ancient artefacts related to the appearance of the first primitive people in Azerbaijan from 1.7-1,8 million years ago have recently been found in the country.
Within the last fifty years the complex research, conducted in Azerbaijan, discovered the patterns of material culture and comprehensive scientific materials for the exploration of the history of the appearance, formation and evolution of ancient people. On the basis of discovered scientific materials the distant past, the initial stages of evolution of the first people and the characteristic features of the patterns of the material culture of our ancestors are being studied and explored.
Scientific research conducted by Azerbaijani and German scientists proved that primitive people appeared on the territory of Azerbaijan 2 million years ago. Yet in the period before 1950, the notion of the settlement of ancient people in Azerbaijan had been rejected. Yet in recent years the archaeological research conducted by Azeri archaeologists proved the groundlessness of such statements and the existence and formation of ancient people on the territory of the country by means of scientific materials. At the same time, the civilization was of a specific kind on the territory of Azerbaijan.
The comprehensive research conducted on the territory of Karabakh registered extensive camps of the Paleolithic era and carried out further scientific exploration.
The scientific research conducted pointed out that it took thousands of years for the ancient inhabitants of Azerbaijan to create implements and to develop them further. Research shows that primitive people mainly settled in the natural caverns, on riverbanks, in caves and other places with favourable conditions.
Rich archaeological camps of different stages of the Stone Age were discovered on the territory of Karabakh during exploration work that was conducted in connection with the Paleolithic era in Azerbaijan. The archaeological survey conducted by the archaeological expedition of the Institute of History under the National Academy of Sciences under the leadership of M.M.Guseynov in the Guruchay and Kondelenchay river valleys discovered cave-dwelling camps at Azykh and Taghlar in May of 1960.
It was discovered that karst caves were typical of the mountainous regions of Karabakh. However, the most comprehensive patterns of material culture were registered only in the Azykh and Taghlar caves in the region.
Multi-layer Azykh Paleolithic camps located in one of the most picturesque places on the left bank of the river Guruchay, at a height of 900 above sea level 16 kilometres were found in Fuzuli on the Tugh lowland.
As a result of scientific research that was held in Azerbaijan, it was not only proven that primitive people lived in Azerbaijan, but also that Azerbaijan is one of the places with the most ancient of civilizations and that primitive people settled and lived here for a long time. Therefore, the complex scientific research that was conducted in Karabakh had rather important scientific relevance.
Comprehensive archaeological materials on patterns of the material culture of Olduvay, Ahsel, Mustye, Orinyak, Solyutre, Madlen, Azil, Mezolit, Neolit, Kur-Araz and dyed dishes found in Araz Quruchay, Arpachay, Terterchay, Vileshchay, Zuvandchay and other valleys were also discovered by way of archaeological research.
The patterns of material culture that were found in the ancient dwelling places in Azerbaijan informs us about the cave life of primitive people, the production of implements, hunting, the first acquaintance with fire, primitive dwellings, rock carvings and the ancient history of Garabagh. At the same time, the material sources further teach us about ancient history and the stages of the formation and settlement of primitive people and the first inhabitants in this area.
Complex scientific research conducted in the dwelling places of the first inhabitants of Azerbaijan proved the existence of primitive people in Azerbaijan. The long formation and settlement of ancient people were proven through scientific evidence.