The Azerbaijani people have created an ancient, rich, and unique culture. He has created valuable resources in various fields of artistic creativity, including in the field of musical creativity. Mugham is the Pearl of the world musical treasure. Unlike the music genres existing in the world, mugham played an important role in the formation of the national and cultural heritage of many nations and reaching to the present time. Mugham, like Azerbaijani folk music, has its roots in the depths of the Eastern musical culture. The harmony of mugham was laid by mouzers singing Kuran, the melody of music played in Persian palaces, and the style of performance was made by Azerbaijani ashugs. The art of mugham is perceived by Azerbaijanis as one of the main cultural values that form the basis of national self-awareness and self-identification. This art is also popular among such ethnic groups as Talysh, Mountain Jews, Lezgins, Georgians, and Avars living in the territory of Azerbaijan. In general, it is impossible not to notice that the amazing sound in Mugham is not universal, but divine music. In all cases, mugham affects our inner mood. It is always in place — in our sad and sad moments when feelings of joy and love are overflowing. Mugham always accompanies us from the beginning to the end of our life. Mugham has been accompanying a person for centuries, giving him spiritual purity and greatness, and has been a bridge from the most ancient times to the present and future.
Mugham is the main genre of classical folk art music of the Eastern countries. The word mugham is derived from the word "magam" used in Iranian-Arabic-Turkish language. The word" magam " comes from the meaning of a curtain on stringed instruments. This name was given to each Mugham as its main (Maya) note is on one degree of the instrument. Until the XIV century, it was a single musical genre of the peoples of the Middle East, but due to the socio-political changes that took place later, this single musical genre was divided in accordance with the Peoples. Classical eastern mugham consisted of 12 main mugham and 6 avazats. The main mughams: Usshaq, Nava, Busilik, Rast, Arag, Isfahan, Zirafkand, Astrurk, Zangula, Rahavi, Huseyni and Hijaz, and avazats consisted of Shahnaz, Maya, Salmek, Novruz, Kerdani, and Guvasht.
There are 7 Main and 3 auxiliary mughams in Azerbaijan. The main mughams are "Rast“, Shur“, "Segah“, Chargah“, Bayati-Shiraz“, Shushtar “and” Humayun“, the auxiliary mughams are” Shahnaz“,” Saranj “and”Chargah of the 2nd kind".
Mugham is the common name of the biggest genre of traditional music of Azerbaijan, it applies to all types of mugham forms, although each of them has its own separate name. The main forms of music representing this genre are dastgah (vocal-instrumental or purely instrumental types), mugham (vocal-instrumental, solo-instrumental, and solo-vocal types), and Zarbi-mugham.
Among all forms of mugham existing in Azerbaijani music, the biggest in its scale and artistic idea is dasgah. The founders of classical eastern mugham and the main theoretical ideas about mugham were Abu Nasr Farabi, Abu Ali ibn Sina, Alkindi, Abdulgadir Maragayi, Safiyyaddin Urmavi, and others. The Azerbaijani composer, prominent representative of professional music of Azerbaijan Uzeyir Hajibeyov is known as one of the main ideas on the theory of Eastern music and mugham in the XX century.
Literary and music assemblies established in the cities of Azerbaijan from the 20s of the XIX century till the beginning of the XX century played a great role in the spread of mugham performance and its professional painting. The most famous of them were "Mejlis-Faramushan" in Shusha, "Mejlis-uns", musicians Society, "Beytus-Safa" in Shamakhy and music Assembly of Mahmud Aga, "Majma-ush-shuara" in Baku, "Divani-Hikmat" in Ganja, "Figiman-ush-shuara" in Ordubad, "Fovalli-fusaha" in Lankaran. Poets, writers, musicians, intellectuals, connoisseurs and connoisseurs of classical poetry and music gathered at these meetings, listened attentively to mughams and held discussions around the fine performance of music and poetry. The assembly was one of the main forms of mugham performance before the audience in the XIX century, and the extinction of this tradition was connected with the process of democratization of music life in Azerbaijan with the discovery of the concert form of music performance in early XX century. However, the councils formed a special culture of careful listening to mugham, as well as a tasteful, head-on listening atmosphere ("The meeting of arifs"), which put forward high artistic requirements for mugham performance. From its own point of view, the councils played a powerful stimulus in the professional perfection of Azerbaijani musicians in the XIX - early XX centuries.
The culture of mugham performance was formed from the creative achievements of many generations of brilliant musicians — singers and sazandas, famous throughout the Caucasus and Iran. Among the great singers of the past, we can mention more bright names such as Mirza Sattar, Haji Husu, Mashadi Isi, Abulhasan Khan Azer Igbal, Mirza Mukhtar Mammadzade, Jabbar Garyagdi Oglu, Alasgar Abdullayev, Abdulbagi Zulfov, Agasaid Agabalaoglu, Mirtagi Mirbabayev, Majid Behbudov, Kechachi Oglu Mohammed, Islam Abdullayev, Mashadi Mammad Farzaliyev, Huseyngulu Sarabski, Seyid and Khan Shushinski, Bulbul, Zulfu Adigozalov.
In Soviet times, singers abulfat Aliyev, Gulu Asgarov, Nariman Aliyev, Hagigat Rzayeva, Yavar Kalantarli, Zahra Rahimova, Jahan Talishinskaya, Fatma Mehraliyeva, Rubaba Muradova, Shovkat Alakbarova, Tarzar Aliyeva, Hajibaba Huseynov, Yagub Mammadov, tarists Akhsan Dadashov, Bahram Mansurov, Baba Salahov, Kamil Ahmadov, Haji Mammadov, Habib Bayramov, Mammadaga Muradov, Amirulla Mammadbayli, Agasaf Seyidov Firuza zeynalova was protected and developed.
Singers such as Islam Rzayev, Arif Babayev, Alibaba Mammadov, Janali Akbarov, Aghakhan Abdullayev, Alim Gasimov, Mansum Ibrahimov, Sakina Ismayilova, Gandab Guliyeva, Melekkhanim Eyyubova, Zabit Nabizade, Zahid Guliyev, tarists Agasalim Abdullayev, Vamig Mammadaliyev, Mohlat Muslumov, Firuz Aliyev, Sarvar Ibrahimov, kamanchaists Habil Aliyev, Mirnazim Asadullayev, Shafiga Eyvazova, Fakhraddin Dadashov and teachers have also made a great contribution to the Azerbaijani culture of mugham performance.
As a source of pleasure, our mughams and dastgahs not only form the world view of our compatriots with the richest and very unique information about the historical past of Azerbaijan, but also play an important role in revealing and comparative investigation of historical events in the socio-political life of the peoples of the East... In November 2003, 7 Azerbaijani mugham was declared “one of the masterpieces of the oral and intangible heritage of humanity" by UNESCO and it was noted that his homeland is Azerbaijan. Since 2005, the Heydar Aliyev Foundation has been continuously implementing the project "Azerbaijani mughams".The music album "Karabakh singers", performed by 24 virtuosic mugham Masters, is the first and important project met with great interest. The "Mugham encyclopedia", prepared by the foundation in 2008, is regarded as a weighty publication for the protection and development of our ancient musical heritage.
Construction of the International Mugham Center with the support of the foundation, holding off Republican mugham contests in recent years and international Mugham festivals attended by young people from many countries of the world aims to reveal young talented performers who will develop ancient performing traditions and promote the art of mugham to the world. Holding of international Mugham festivals once again proves to the world that mugham is the national treasure of Azerbaijan, as well as the Pearl of the world music Treasury.
A series of multilateral events held under the leadership of Azerbaijan's First Lady, First Vice-President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, President of the Heydar Aliyev Foundation, UNESCO, and ISESCO goodwill ambassador Mehriban Aliyeva play an exceptional role in the modern history of Azerbaijani mugham. As a result of this activity, mugham performance in recent years has been going through a renaissance in the true sense of the word, with comprehensive support from various aspects. The inclusion of the intangible heritage of World Culture in the list of values of universal significance by UNESCO's decision is an assessment of mugham and the art of performing tar as an integral part of the unique cultural wealth not only of our people but of the entire mankind.
As UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador, First Lady of Azerbaijan Mehriban Aliyeva wrote: "Mugham is a special moment of our soul... there are many underwater currents in the sea of mugham, we can feel the heat of the mysterious range of human feelings and realize its existence in all its diversity. And we will return to him again. He is no longer a part of our life, he is our own.
We inherit mugham as a part of our heart and soul to future generations. It is mugham that is able to instill in our successor's such qualities as an attachment to roots, national dignity, pride, emotional wealth, suffering and being able to share the suffering of others, moral perfection, and completeness that mugham possesses.”
Our mugams, which perpetuate the glorious and troubled history of our people invoices, are also our consolation in our most painful days. Mugham, which is a source of amazing feelings, thoughts, and wisdom, in all cases – in our sad, joyful moments-affects our mood, lives the joy of the moments when we have gained freedom and independence and calls us to victory.