• Manisa khatun Mehseti Genjevi
  • Khagani Shirvani
  • Nizami Genjevi
  • Mirza Shefi Vazeh
  • Mirza Feteli Akhundov
  • Seyid Azim Shirvani
  • Mirza Alekber Sabir
  • Jalil Mammadguluzadeh
  • Huseyn Javid


Manisa Khatun Mehseti Ganjavi

Manisa Khatun Mehseti Genjevi, one of the founders of the new poetic school and poetic exhibition in XII century Azerbaijan literature, played a great role in the creation and development of the idea of humanism in our literature. Different opinions about her are known to us. The poetess is a heroine of the epos 'Amir Ahmed and Mehseti" of the time. The works of Mesheti had been copied out during her life and a divan was created. They say, that the divan of the poetess existed till the beginning of the XV century and was disappeared at the end of that century after the occupation of Heart by Abdulla khan Ozbek. As one of her rubais tells, she tried her hand also in gazals and qitas. As the divan of the poetess is considered to be disappeared for today, her poems, mainly containing rubais had been gathered up from different historical and literary sources, memoirs, and from the epos 'Amir Ahmed and Mehseti".

Though we may come across some information about her beginning with the Mehseti period, a great Russian scientist Y.E.Bertels states, that there didn't exist any such poetess and she was not the heroine of the epos. The idea is denied by the fact that the name of the poetess is shown in praising of the sultan of Seljugs Togrul II in the foreword of 'Khosrov and Shirin' by Nizami, as well as in a story in 'Ilahiname' written by the contemporary of Mesheti, the great Sufi poet Farideddin Attar.

Mir Abbas Mirbagirzadeh, who first mentioned the name of Mesheti in the 20-30-s of the XX century, came to a conclusion that the poetess was born in 491 (1097-1098); he considered that Mesheti described in "Amir Ahmed and Mehseti" was 20 years old, and this fact approaches her to the period of the palace of sultan Mahmud Seljugi (1117-1132). Iranian authors also based on this fact when speaking about her. This fact is shown by the German scientist Fritz Meyer, in his work 'Gozel Mesheti', written in 1984, where he proved the abovementioned dates (491 (1097-1098)in the analysis of a rubai, the date of which was known. The article 'The dates of born and the passing away of Mesheti' in the journal of NASA 'Meruzeler'('Reports'). About 200 authors and investigators spoke about Mecheti till up today.

1) Shahab Tabrizi gathered rubais, gitas, and gazals from different sources in Iran and for the first time in 1957 created a divan of about 200 poems of the poetess.

2) The German scientist Fritz Meyer created a result of the 20-year hard work monograph 'Gozal Mesheti' in 1963, giving 257 rubais and about 30 poems of the poetess.

3) The Azeri scientist, professor, the doctor of philological sciences Khalil Yusifov wrote "Mehseti Genjevi", where at the end he gave the translations of about 190 rubais of Mesheti into Azerbaijan keeping its original measure of eruz.

4) Rafail Huseynov created the scientific-publicists monograph "Mehseti nece varsa" ('Mesheti in her original').

Mesheti wrote in Persian so popular at that time. The rubais of Mezheti taken from "Amir Ahmed and Mehseti" 11 times were translated into Azerbaijan with the syllabic measure. The rubais of Mesheti have also been translated into Russian, English, German, French and Italian languages.


Khagani Shirvani

The real name of the poet was Ibrahim, the name of his father was Ali. His full name in samples of the Middle Ages is Abu Badil Afzaladdin Ibrahim ibn Ali Najjar ibn Osman ibn Ibrahim Hagaigi Hassanul-Acem Khagani Shirvani. Haqaiqi, Hassanul-Acem, and Khagani are his pen-names, Afzaladdin is his nickname, Abu Badil is his kunya and Shirvani is the name of his birth-place.

Khagani was born in 1126 in Shamakhi. His first education he got from his uncle (father's brother) and showed a deep interest in different sciences of the time. Showing his poetic talent in his youth Khagani was had been invited to the palace and get fame. The poet had been arrested it the result of intrigues and envies of the people of the palace. Later the poet visited the Near East countries and reflected his impressions in poetic works. At the end of his life the poet spent in Tebriz and died there in 1199. He was buried in "Shairler qebiristanligi" ('the poet's graveyard').

The rich literary heritage of Khagani consists of the divan of lyrical poems of 17 thousand stanzas, the epic "Tohfatul-Irageyn", 60 letters- the interesting patterns of verse. The poems in divan are qasida, gazal, medhiye, mersiye, rubai and so on. The qasidas "Shiniyye" and "Medain harabeleri', the poems 'Habsiye' and the epic 'Tohfatul-Irageyn' are of a social and political character.

Though the works of Khagani are in Persian and Arabian languages, for many innovations brought to the poem by him and for literary and artistic peculiarities, he represented the school of Azerbaijan.

Many well-known Oriental poets wrote naziras-imitative poems to Khagani's literary works. The investigators of Azerbaijan, Iran, Russia, India, Pakistan, and that of Eastern Europe took an active part in the investigation of the poet's heritage. Among Azerbaijan scientists investigating life and creativity, we may count the academician Hamid Arasli, the Caucasus peasant Herischi and Mammadaga Sultanov.

Translation of some of the poetic works of Khagani into the Azerbaijan language is the achievement of M. Rahim, A.Vahid, M.Mubariz, and others.


Nizami Genjevi

Nizami Ilyas the son of Yusif is a great master of words and philosopher of the XII century culture of Renaissance. He was born, got his education, and created in old Ganja, situated on 'ipek yolu' the way of silk, along which the eastern and the western culture are mixed. In the XI century, being the center of Aran, it was a city of highly developed culture, with a state palace, medrese, medical and scientific institutions. It was also the center of education in literature, history, philosophy, astrology, mathematics, and the religious sciences.

The first biographical information about Nizami's personality was recorded 300 years after his passing away, thus there is no exact information about his age, the dates of his birth and death, about his visits, his parents, and relatives. So the information given about him is only the supposition of the scientists. Nizami mentioned himself, his father, grandfather, and his mother.

Alike his predecessors and contemporaries Nizami started his activity by writing gazals and qasidas. Being unsatisfied with it he inclined to create his work in the genre of epic novel-epos, extending since the XI century after Firdovsi. His first attempt in this direction was created about his forties "Makhzanul-asrar", the original pattern of epic couplet genre of the XII century. The work is characterized as a combination of the tale the epos in belles-lettres. The tales and the eposes reflect the major features of the epic genre-language, devices and the context of the belles-lettres. The mesnevi (couplet) contains 13 eposes and 7 stories. As a rule, the eposes and the stories followed the articles and decoded and gave an artistic analysis of their philosophical and ethical significance and the symbols.

"Makhzanul-asrar" ('The treasure of secrets') begins with tovhi and minacat, and forewords about praising and Ascension of the Prophet. It tells about the origin and the essence of Allah, that he is single, he is the creator, he is the inventor and the beginning of everything, he appointed Muhammed excellency (s) to be a prophet to accept and to represent Him, also about Gurani-Kerim (Koran) sent to the Prophet as a book of knowledge for Moslems, etc. there is an essential-contextual relation between the artistic parts of the book and the forewords, time-to-time ayes of Koran are mentioned here. Thus 'The treasure of secrets' can be named a complete Islamic literary work about the world, a perfect man, and a perfect society.

The second work of Nizami 'Khosrov and Shirin' was written in 1180 and dedicated to Jahan Pahlavan, the ruler of Azerbaijan. Though the theme of the work is about the history of pre-Islamic Iran, the poet used a verse different from Firdovsi. Alike the literary works of 'Khamsa' 'Khosrov and Shirin' begins with minacat, praising and Ascension of the Prophet, addresses to the king. In the part of the book where the poet tells about its creation, he also gives the philosophical characteristics of love, here described. He calls it cosmic love and: 'there is no other mehrab of the destiny as love…, the world is (completely full of ) the love'. As to him if love falls on to the heart of the stone, it will attract the inner jewellery of it. It is the love that draws iron to a magnet.' With these words, Nizami wished to see beautifully described universal and real love in the hearts of Turan and Iran expressing his wish indirectly by the personages of Khosrov and Shirin. The poet made a hint describing Shirin as a princess of Turan from the family of Afrasiyab. He had a political aim in presenting all abovementioned to the state of Atabeys.

In this literary work, Nizami tries to solve social-political problems by means of love and moral evolution, but orgy and voluptuousness of Khosrov brings a great obstacle in front of him; he has been killed by his son Shiruya, as in saying 'The ash is the son of the fire'("Odun oglu kul olar") Coming to a philosophical conclusion poet points to the periodicity of natural life and says:'Realise yourself to recognize the reality with density, if so, in spite of far distance the destiny is like a mirror in front of you. You are made of two worlds.' Nizami states that though a human body may be perfect in the four elements, he should avoid the characters and the differences of those elements. He gives examples of natural events and calls a man to moral-sensitive evolution and to avoid physical pleasures. In the face of a naturalist, Nizami tries to solve social problems with natural philosophy.

'Khosrov and Shirin' is an original pattern also for literary- artistic structure and the style. The competition between Khosrov and Shirin and reading of gazals by Barbet and Nakisa under musical accompaniment praising the heroes prove that the philosophy of life is reflected in the relation of music and poetry.

The subject of 'Leyli and Mejnun' written by Nizami in 1188, with the request of Shirvanshah Akhsitan, had been taken from pre-Islamic Arabic folk-lore, the central subject is the nature of Arabia and the life of badavies. The poet tried to show processes that platonic love in the lives of tribes carried in the period of Islam. While the center of translation and investigation founded in Bagdad in the VIII century spread the ancient and old Greek literary-philosophical works, rabis in the IX-X centuries showed great interest toward the love adventures of Mejnun and Leyli and gathered their rayets. The process of Islamisation mentioned in stories happened during this period.

In the Islamic period, social ethics found it to be humiliating and unpermittable to manifest love gazals, but the uluhiyyet of love in the life of uzries denies any kind of prohibitions. This is named wandering or 'madness' in Islam. Nizami explains love from the aspect of Renaissance philosophy, to be the main rule of life and says there is no opposition to this love. Majnun sees love in Kaba, in the desert, in the sky, and ask Kaba and the stars to help his love.

The natural love of Mejnun files for it could not pass the obstacles crested by tribal traditions. The main attention in the literary work is paid to deep contradictions of innovation, new life, and the sense of the renaissance with antiquity and ignorance which was so peculiar at the beginning of the Renaissance.

In foreword of this poem, Nizami criticizes Akhsitan's idea to rich the epic with Arabic-Persian words and to avoid Turkish elements and character. He names Leyli and Mejnun the Turks with Turkish language living among the Arabians. The abovementioned thoughts were the characteristic features of the XII century Azerbaijan renaissance.

The epic ''Heft Peyker' ('the seven beauties') written by Nizami in 1197 is dedicated to the ruler of Maraga Agsungur Korpe Arslan, alike Leyli and Mejnun', is a work of the renaissance the theme of which is taken from the history of the dynasty of Sasani rulers. The plot of the epic is based on love, social life, and statehood of the VIII-X century when Midiya-Greek literary-philosophical cultures synthesized in the period of Islamic renaissance. The love described in the epic is alike that of between 'Khosrov and Shirin', 'Leyli and Mejnun', i.e. cosmic-world. This love as to its nature creates peace and equality between the parties and destroys all the excited contradictions.

In the given epic the cosmos is established in the Earth in the pattern of seven domes. Each of these domes, symbolizing seven planets for their particular color and character are adapted to the character and the deeds of human inner and other body-members and thus reveal the beauties and the faults of human ethics. According to this conception, for its origin, a human is the combination of perceptible(material) and mental (moral-spiritual or mental-passionate) worlds.

"Faziletli adamların sheheri' by Farabi greatly influenced the poet for the creation of 'Seven Beauties' ("Yeddi gozel"). In the former, the body was compared with a city, a country. The conception of antic Zoroastric and Greek natural-philosophical ides found their literary reflection in this epic.

'Isgendername', supposed to be written in 1200-1203 was dedicated to his dear Nusrateddin Abubekr, by the writer's own wish. The theme of this work also was taken from the history of Iran-Greek wars. This is the main peculiarity of the East renaissance.

The aim of Nizami in this work is not the description of the wars, but the introduction of eastern culture to the greek and thereby the synthesis of the two cultures. When Iskender burnt Iranian teshkeders, the philosophers around him insisted that he should take the texts of 'Avesta' written on the leather, send them to Greece and translate and learn them. Greek scientists confirm that antic greek scientists studied and used the natural-philosophical conceptions of the mugs and. As Nizami writes, Iskender looks upon the real events related to the culture and the society absent in his motherland as the miracle of life. He meets different countries, people, and cultures along his way, gets acquainted with the school of Indian charbaks, arrive to the diamond field on his way back to the north, the soldiers gather the pieces of the diamond with them. The most important cultural point of the work is Iskender's presentation in the country without ahead'. He admired the life, thinking, the system of ruling based on equality in this country. Iskender hears about the water of life in the northern darkness and tried to find a way there. The search of sources of eternity existed in the ancient cultures; in shumer epics. This source, in Shumer epic, is shown in the east, possible on the islands of the Caspian lake of the lake Urmu. The aborigen of the island Uminanitdin knows the way out. According to Zoroastric traditions, the source of eternity is the plant 'Hoym".

Iskender on his way to the darkness with the Prophet Khizir, losses his way, Khizir finds the water of eternity, drinks it, and informs Iskender about it.

Thus Iskender gets the opportunity of prophecy, the pick of mental evolution, not in Greece, but after getting acquainted with the culture, scientific-philosophical world outlook of the east during his trip. According to this aspect "Iskendername" is the final completed work of renaissance in the literary-philosophical creativity of Nizami.


Mirza Shefi Vazeh

Mirza Shefi Vazeh is one of the prominent representatives of Azerbaijan literature in the first part of the XIX century.

Shefi was born in 1794 in Ganja in a little fanily of a bricklayer. His religious educationhe got in medrese, he perfectly mastered Arabic and percian languages, and get introduced with the works of famous poets of classic East literaure. At the beginning of the 30-s Mirza shefi worked as a teacher in a medrese of Ganja and taught nastal (a kind of signature in Arabic and Persian) to children. With his artistic talent and deep knowledge of ideal-literary dignity of the poets of the East, he started his creative ctivity in his youth and wrote poems under the pseudonym of Vazeh.

In 1840 Mirza Shefi came to Tiflis (Tbilisi) and was appointed to the position of a teacher of Azerbaijan language in primary school for girls. In 1846 he returned to Ganja and again started to work as a teacher at a new school. After 4 years Vazeh returnes to Tiflis and became a teacher of Azerbaijan and Percian languages at nobles gymnasium in Tiflis.

Mirza Shefi died in 1852 and was buried in the Tbilisi Moslem graveyard.

In 1844 Vazeh organized a literary society in Tiflis under the name of "Divana-hikmet". The prominent Azerbaijan poets, Abasgulu aga Bakikhanov, Mirza Fatali Akhundov, and others who lived in Tbilisi at that time attended that society. Fridrix Bodenschted, a German poet and interpreter working as a teacher at that gymnasium, created close relations with Mirza Shefi, took the lessons of Persian from him, and became one of the members of the society. In 1846, returning to Germany Bodenschted took the divan of written poems of Mirza Shefi Vazeh, translated his poems into Germany, and published some of them in the book 'Min bir geje' ('1001 nights') in 1848, in 1851 he printed all the poems under the name of "Mirza Shefinin shergileri"('The songs o Mirza Shefi'). Those poems quickly spread about Germany and admired the readers. Soon the poems had been translated into French, English, Russian, and other foreign languages and Mirza Shefi turned into a world-wide famous poet.

The whole his life Mirza Shefi Vazeh was busy with his creative activity and under the influence of the representatives of classic oriental poetry especially, Hafiz, Sadi, Rumi and Fuzuli, gazals, muhammases, rubais, gitas, hajvs (pamhplets) of a highly ideological-literary character, and created a precious heritage. But we have received very few of his poems. Most of them are translated into German.

The poems of Mirza Shefi Vazeh are different in theme and idea. An important part of them is dedicated to love. They describe feelings and anxiety, joy and trouble experienced by the poet in his own life.

The poet also created poems of critical-satiric character. Here he sritisize the social drawbacks of feudal socity, religious fanatism, dishonest and ignorant priests using the religion for their personal purposes.


Mirza Feteli Akhundov

Mirza Feteli Akhundov is a prominent writer, thinker, and social figure who played a great role in the development of new period Azerbaijan literature and social, political, and philosophical ideas.

Fatali was born in 1812 in Nukha (today's Sheki). The first education he got in mollakhana (the house of mollas). In 1818 Fatali is taken under the care of Akhund Alesker, the uncle of his mother. Being a prominent clergyman of his time, Akhund Alesker noticed the talent and intellect of little Fatali and decided personally to be busy with his education and breeding. He taught him Persian and Arabic languages, Koran, religious-philosophical sciences, introduced him to prominent representatives of classic East literature.

In 1832 Akhundov continued his religious education in a madrasa in Ganja and made friends with teacher Mirza Shefi Vazeh. Being a talented and a man of independent thought, Mirza Shefi Vazeh affected the world experience of young Mirza Fatali. Under this influence, Akhundov denied being a clergyman and decide to deal with world affairs.

In 1833 M.F.Akhundov studied in a Russian primary school in Sheki. Since 1834 he had been working in the position of an interpreter on Eastern languages at the chief Caucasus office of Russia in Tiflis. Beginning with that period he had been working as a translator on civil, and for some time on diplomatic and military affairs near chief judges of Caucasus during the whole his life.

In Tiflis, M.F.Akhundov was surrounded by a multi-sided and important situation. Here he improved his knowledge of Eastern literature, philosophy, and history. Also, he got knowledge about the new period literature, culture, social-political and psychological thinking of Western Europe and that of Russia, as well as the world sciences.

While served, M.F.Akhundov hardly worked as a poet, playwriter, literary critic, philosopher, and sociologist, created a rich heritage.

Since 1857 and during the whole of his life, M.F.Akhundov struggled for correction of the Islamic alphabet and replacement of it by the Latin alphabet at the beginning of the 70-s. He was famous in the Near East and in the countries of Europe as the first 'reformer' of the Arabic alphabet.

The great Azerbaijan writer, thinker, and social figure M.F.Akhundov died on 1878 February 26(or march 10according to the new calendar), and was buried in Tiflis.

Beginning his creativity in his youth as a poet and from time to time continuing his poetic creativity, under a pen-name 'Sabuhi', M.F.Akhundov created in Azerbaijan and Persian languages the patterns of classical poetry, as well as that of in folk genres, such as goshma, gerayli, mukhammes, also written in verse letters, satiric and etic-didactic poems nad gasidas. 'Sherg poemasə'('Oriental epic') dedicated to the passing away of A.S.Pushkin, his goshma and mukhammases wrote under the influence of his predecessors M. P.Vagif and G. Zakir, 'Yeni Elifba haggənda' ('About new alphabet'), satire criticizing viziers of Nasreddin shah, the ruler of Iran and other didactic poems are of special importance among his works.

M.F.Akhundov remained in Azerbaijan literature became famous as a great dramatist. At the 50-s of the XIX century with his high comedy talent, Mirza Feteli wrote comedies "Hekayeti-Molla Ibrahimkhalil kimyager"(1850), "Hekayeti musyo Jordan and dervish Mestelik shah", "Jadugini-Meshur" (1850), "Hekayeti-Khirs guldurbasan" (1851), "Serguzeshti-veziri-khani Lenkeran" (1852), "Hekayeti-merdi khesis" (1852), and "Murafie vekilleri", thus founded the national dramaturgy in Azerbaijan literature. With those 6 comedies, he strengthens relations of Azerbaijan literature with real-life and major actual social and moral problems of his time, brought new themes and ideas reflecting necessary demands and needs of the people, founded new realistic literature. In his comedies, we find the description of the life of Azerbaijan people in 30-50-s, the characters of that time families, social and moral conditions of that time, and also various and colorful descriptions of different social layers and classes.

As a master of comedies, M.F.Akhundov was famous not only in his motherland but also in Moslem countries of the Near East, in Russia, and the West European countries.

In 1857 M.F.Akhundov wrote the narrative "Aldanmish kevakib" and founded a new type of literary prose in Azerbaijan literature. In the narrative he supports the conception of European enlighteners as 'the world is ruled by healthy mind' and he criticized social faults of feudal-despotic ruling in Iran and the heads of the state and popularized the ideas of enlightenment and humanism. Akhundov's narration 'Aldanmish Kavakib' is one of the original and splendid patterns of world prose of enlightenment.

In the 50-70-s of the past century, he wrote a series of literary-critical articles in Azerbaijani and Persian languages, and his role as literary critic of Azerbaijan literature is considered to be invaluable.

The criticism of critical-formalist and religious-mystic literature, popularization of new realistic literary principles are the main plot and the problems in his literary-critical and aesthetic views.

In the 60-70-s of the XIX century, M.F.Akhundov worked as a philosopher and a sociologist and created a philosophical treatise as "Kemaludovle mektublari" philosophical-sociological works as "Hekim ingilis Yuma javab", "John Stuart Milli azadlig hagginda 2, "Mollayi-Rumi ve teskifi" and others. By these words, he made a change in the philosophical, political and social idea of Azerbaijan and the Moslem countries of the Near East, founded a stable basis of the ideology of enlightenment.

The typological peculiarities of the word ideology of enlightenment found their wide, deep, and right reflection in philosophical treatises and other philosophical works of M.F.Akhundov. Alike prominent representatives of the enlightenment of XVII century Western Europe and that of Russia in 40-60-s of the XIX century, in his philosophical-sociological works, M.F.Akhundov confronted the feudal-despotic ruling, system ruling of the feudal state, feudal social relations and legal institutions, religion as ideological and moral support of feudalism, middle- century religious-ideological experience, sociological education and the rules of instruction and education and thus popularized new state structure-parliamentary ruling, new social relations and rules, new liberal- democratic and moral-ethic thinking, as well as new period scientific-cultural achievements in the European countries.

M.F.Axundov was famous as a writer and a philosopher having a great role in the development of new-period literary-philosophic ideas of Azerbaijan and the Moslem people of the Near East. He is also considered to be one of the representatives of the movement for the ideology of enlightenment in the world.


Seyid Azim Shirvani

He is well-known as a talented lyric and satirist of the XIX century Azerbaijan literature. He is also known for his educational poems and prosaic stories and fables. Seyid Azim was born in 1835 on July 10 in Shamakhi, when he was 7-8 years he lost his father Seyid Mahammed, and left with her mother to Dagestan to his grandfather Molla Huseyn. He lived there for 10 years and there his first education. In 1835 when he was 18 he returned to Shamakhi and here he lived the whole of his life and worked over his literary and scientific-pedagogical creativity. He opened a school and gave their lessons. He also gave lessons at school 'Mejlis' crated by Seid effendi Unsizadeh attached to Shamakhi ecclesiastical society. After S. Unsizadeh moved to Tiflis Seyid Azim ruled that school. Since 1877 he at the same time began to work as a teacher of sheriat and the native language at Shamakhi city school. According to the pedagogical experience that he got in the period of his work as a teacher, he wrote a manual for pupils of Iltisav School, but all his attempts to publish it were desperate. The bodies prohibiting him from this action were that-time government powers of Tsarism.

S.E.Shirvani contributed poems and articles of educational, ethical, and didactic character to all national press organs of the XIX century: 'Ekinchi' (1875-1877), "Ziya (Ziyayi-Gafgasiyye)" (1879-1884), and "Keshkul" (188 -1891). The poet considered the publishment of 'Ekinchi' to be a tremendous event in the social and cultural environment of Azerbaijan. He represented it with a lyrical poem, but he needed about a year to understand the essence of literary and cultural ideas popularized by the newspaper. Since the middle of 1876, the progressive, educational poems of Seyid Ezim had been often published in the newspaper 'Ekinchi', then in "Ziya (Ziyayi-Gafgasiyye)" and "Keshkul". Thus he became famous as a poet-enlightener in the history of literature.

Seyid Azim was at the head of 'Beytus-Shafa', a literary school functioning in Shamakhi, at the same time he kept close relations and share his poems with the literary societies of Baki, Karabakh, Lenkeran, and other centers of culture. S.A. Shirvani directed from his contemporaries by tender lyrical gazels of deep sense and ideal-aesthetic peculiarity, and realistic poems. His satiric poems, with their literary-ideal character, formulated the genre of satire in Azerbaijan literature and thus gave it social shape. Among greatly appreciated satires of Shirvani, we may name "Gazi saggalini yandirir"(Gazi burns his beard), "Mustahidin tehsilden gayitmasi" and others… The poet also has a scientific work "Shirvan khanliginin tarixi" ('The history of Shirvan Khanate').

S.E.Shirvani died in Shamakhi in 1888. His works had regularly been published in books and there exist many articles, dissertations, and monographs about him. His life and creativity are also studied in schools.


Mirza Alekber Sabir

M.A. Sabir, popular as a real national poet in Azerbaijan literature was born in 1862, May 30 in Shamakhi. His first education Alekber got in mollakhana (the school for mollas), then he went t school opened by S.E.Shirvani, and in his early ages began his creative activity. The first literary works of Sabir were analyzed and edited by his teacher, the famous poet S.E.Shirvani, who gave his young pupil his own advice. The pen-mane of Alekber was 'Sabir'. His first poems, calling character, coming out from the spirit of the XX century were published in 1903 in the newspaper 'Shargi-Rus'.

His poems of social character were published in 'Hayat'(The Life) and satiric poems in "Bir mejlisde on iki kishinin sohbeti" (Talks of 12 men at a meeting) in 1905 and 1906. The fame and talent of Sabir as a poet riched its pick in pages of the journal 'Molla Nasreddin'. His first satiric work in the journal was "Millet taraj olur, olsun, ne ishim var?!"(Let the nation be destroyed, be it far from me) which founded a revolutionary satiric school with him at its top. Sabir's poetry at the same time played a great role that 'Molla Nasreddin' became popular. The poet published his "Hop-hop", "Gulayan" (Laughing), "Aglar gulayan" (Crying laughing), "Chayda chapan" (Galloped in the river ), "Gabagda geden zenjirli" (The chained going ahead), "Mejzub", "Nizedar", "Yetim gəzjəg"(Poor little girl), "Goja iranlə" (An old Iranian) and other secret satiric poems not only in 'Molla Nasreddin' but also in press organs as "Bahlul", "Zanbur", "Hayat", "Irshad", "Teze hayat" (New Life), "Seda", Hagiget" (The truth), "Gunesh" (The sun), "Yeni hagiget" (New truths).

Sabir's works (poems for children) were also published in journals "Dabistan", "Rehber", and the manuals "Birinji il" (The first year ), "Ikinji il" (The second year), "Yeni mekteb" (A new school). We may also name famous poems of the poet as "Faxriyya", "Satiram!", "Bura say!..", "Okhutmuram, el chekin!..", "Pula tavajjoh", "Khasisin heyfi, varisin keyfi", "Nefsin gezeti, eglim merezi", "Istigbalimiz laglagdir", "Istigbal bizimdir", "Shekibai", "Ruhum!" and others. Along with his satiric poems, he published publicist articles and articles of a different kind in the periodicals (in newspapers "Hayat", "Irshad", "Taze hayat" etc.), where he touched upon major social-national problems of the time. Those articles were "Geyrat"(Honour), "Islamiyyetin insaniyyetperverliyi"(Humanity of Islam), "Juma"( Friday), "Zaman ne isteyir?! Amma biz…"(What does time wants?! And we…). Sabir is also the author of topical satires.

Together with his literary activity after examinations in 1908 M.A.Sabir got the right of teaching, opened a school in Shamakhi under the name of 'Ummid'(The Hope), gave their lessons, later worked as a teacher at a public school in Balakhani village of Baki. He took n active part in the foundation of libraries-reading houses, staging shows for theatre, and other mass cultural measures. With his literary creation and deeds, to 'elimination of troubles' brought by Azerbaijan abolishment by Armenian aggressors, he showed himself as a real citizen

M.A.Sabir died of liver disease on June 12 in 1911. His works were regularly published under the name 'Hophopname'. Many scientific articles, monographs, and dissertations had been dedicated to him.


Jalil Mammadguluzadeh

At the beginning of the XX century Jalil Mammadgulu oglu Mammadguluzadeh, who is named together with world literature classicists, was famous as the creator of Azerbaijan literary school of critical realism and of the revolutionary-democratic and satiric journal 'Molla Nasreddin', also as writer innovator, dramatist, journalist, literary and cultural figure, found a new way in national literature. He popularized the ideas of humanism, democracy, and freedom.

J. Mammadguluzadeh was born in Azerbaijan, in ancient Nakhchivan, he studied Arabic, Persian languages, and graduated from the Azerbaijani section of Gori Teachers Seminary of Georgia(1882-1887). Here he studied the cultures of the East and Europe, the creativity of W.Shakespeare, M.Volter, V. Hugo, A.S.Pushkin, L.Tolstoy, N.Gogol, and others and became famous as a prominent writer and a dramatist.

The great master of short stories, the author of wise comedies, a prominent journalist, a citizen, and an intellectual J. Mammadguluzadeh were troubled with the faith of both parts of Azerbaijan, the North and the West, he reflected people dream of freedom, their difficult life and criticized bordering countries, exploiting powers, social backwardness, passivity, and fanatism.

His work at newspaper 'Shargi-Rus' in Tiflis in 1905, the publication of literary works and slogans about revolution and freedom in printing-house 'Geyrat', deep investigation of social-political events and the life of the people formed him as an artist with a new world outlook. He created new works under the influence of the events of 1905. His tales "Pocht gutusu" (Post-box), "Usta Zeynal" (Master Zeynal), "Iranda hurriyyet" (Liberty in Iran), "Rus gizi" (Russian girl), "Konsulun arvadi"(Consul wife), "Gurbanalibey'' and many others turned into a new event in Azerbaijan literature and in that of the Near East. The comedies "Oluler", "Anamin kitabi", "Deli yighinjaghi", "Kamancha" opened a new page in Azerbaijan literature and tagged on the Azerbaijan scene. "Oluler" got succession in the theatres of Turkey, Rusia, Iran, Middle Asia, people stretched along the bank of the Volga, and Turkish people of the Northern Caucasus, and resulted in the creation of new literary and artistic figures.

Another character brought fame to J. Mammedguluzadeh in social thought, the history of literature and culture of Azerbaijan, beginning with 1906 during 30 years was the publication of revolutionary satiric journal 'Molla Nasreddin' in Tiflis, Tebriz, Baki and other great cities, together with O.F.Nemanzadeh, A.Gamkusar and other his friends indeed. This journal played a great role in the national-moral, literary-cultural development and renaissance of our people, as well as that of the Near East.

His works have been published in the edition of 100 000 copies. 100 year anniversary of the poet's birth was celebrated in the world according to the decision of UNESCO in 1996. J. Mammedguluzadeh is with us today-in independent Azerbaijan.


Huseyn Javid

Huseyn Abdulla oglu Rasizadeh was born on 24.10.1882 in Nakhchivan and died on 5.12.1941 in the province of Irkutsk in deportation.

He is a prominent poet and dramatist of Azerbaijan. He was born in Nakhchivan in the family of a clergyman, the primary education he got there in mollakhana, the secondary education in a new-method school 'Mektebi-Terbiye' founded by M.T.Sidgi, a prominent intellectual and teacher(years 1894-98). Here he writes the first poems in classical style under the pen-names 'Gulchin' and 'Salik'. In 1899-1903 he had been to Southern Azerbaijan and continued his education in Talibiyye school of Tebriz. He had graduated from the literary section of Istanbul University (1909) and gave lessons first in Nakhchivan, then in Ganja, Tiflis, and in 1915 in Baki.

Javid's literary heritage was inspired by ancient Eastern culture, having an important, gradually sparkling, the ever-living position taken in Azerbaijan culture, literary thinking, and the treasure of the theatre, as well as from patterns of Azerbaijan classical poetry and from deeply moral-philosophical samples. He is one of XX century Azerbaijan romantism.

Javid's heritage is literary rich in genre and form. He is the author of lyrical poems, lyrical and epic poems, the first prosaic tragedy and dramas in Azerbaijan literature. His first book of poems "Kechmish gunler" was published in 1913. Lyrical poems of social, philosophical and ethical Caracter prevailed at the beginning of his creativity ("Oksuz Anver", "Choban turkusu", "Kichik serseri", "Dun ve bu gun", "Gadin", "Gormedim", "Veremli gəz" etc.) where he gave the description of troubles of a human in the family and in his life, tyranny, and injustice of the time and difficulties brought by it. In "Mezlumlar uchun", (1914) "Guruba garshə", "Herb ve felaket" (1916) "Herb allahə garshəsənda" (1917) is the reflection of hatred to the wars and imperial policy, bringing troubles to the mankind.

Huseyn was generally known as a dramatist. His philosophical and historical tragedies, family-life dramas created a new step in Azerbaijan dramaturgy, from the point of stylistics, the norm of writing, the innovation of the form, and enriched the culture of the national theatre in a new sense. He highlighted worldwide, social and political, and cultural problems in a special way. The first prosodic play 'Ana' (Mother) (1910) praises nobility, loyalty, courage, in tragedy 'Maral' (1912) he speaks of the personality and freedom of a woman, in the first prosaic tragedy of Azerbaijan literature 'Sheykh Sanan'(1914) he protests national and religious fanatism separating people.

The same ideas are repeated in the drama "Sheyda" (1917), and the epic "Haggini sen mubarize ile ala bilersen" (1918).

In tragedy 'Iblis' (1918), having a particular place in his creativity, all reactionary, pressing forces of the time, imperialist spheres - the best cultural wilds of the XX century are generalized in the personage of 'Iblis'(The Devil).

In historical dramas written by him in 20-30-s, such as "Peygamber" (1922), "Topal Teymur" (1925), "Sayavush" (1933), "Khayyam" (1935), the role of historical figures, the ruler and the people, free thought and reaction are the main problems he overviewed with poetic language.

Javid's poetry is different for its literary artistism, deep emotiveness, and sincerity.